For the support of the tape, rollers or flooring – solid (of wood, steel, plastic) or combined (alternating flooring and roller bearings) are used, roller bearings of various types and designs
Rollers are made of a metal pipe fixed with bearings on the axis; now widely used rollers made of ceramics or high-strength polymer materials
The distance between the roller supports of the upper branch is selected depending on the characteristics of the transported cargo (more often – 1.2 m), the distance between the roller supports of the lower branch is 2 to 2.5 times greater than on the upper branch, but not more than 3.5 m. The loading zone is set from 3 to 5 cushioning rollers at a distance of 0.4-0.5 m from one another
Roller batteries (4 … 7 rollers with a distance of 250 … 500 mm) are installed on the curvilinear sections of the working branch.
Centering rollers are used for automatic alignment of the belt. The centering rollers are installed after 20-25 m
Roller bearings are among the most common elements of belt conveyors. In the course of operation, the maintenance of the roller bearings provides for their periodic inspection, adjustment and replacement, the rollers provide a reserve of lubrication for the entire service life
The roller consists of a shell made of a piece of pipe; insert, stamped from steel or cast from cast iron; axis (or semiaxis); rolling bearing (ball bearing, and for heavy types – tapered roller bearing) and its protective seal. On the inside, the bearing is protected by a washer, grooves in the liner or an inner tube that completely insulates it from the cavity of the roller housing and serves as a reservoir for lubricant storage. To protect the bearing from the outside of the dust, complex labyrinth seals are used.
The durability of the roller depends not only on the power loads and the frequency of its rotation, but also on the structural location and the way of connecting its elements: alignment of the axle surfaces under the bearings and seats in the shell under the glasses, alignment of the outer surface of the cups and bores under the outer bearing rings, seals and greases
Sealing is one of the most important elements of the roller, since it determines the life of the bearing. The maintenance period of the roller depends on the seal design.
In the seals of most roller designs, the main part is the labyrinth, the roller bearings are carefully sealed from the outer and inner sides
The reliability of the bearing assembly is one of the defining criteria when choosing the design of rollers